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Notwithstanding the reasonableness of these potential ascriptions of special duties, just as we don’t rely solely on the thief to respect an individual’s right to their property, we should not rely solely on such special relationships for the protection of basic human rights. Basic human rights directly imply duties without the need for mediating moral principles, such as Pogge’s principle of rectification which requires compensation for past wrongs. [3] The international community bore a correlative duty to intervene in Rwanda based, ultimately, on the moral duties correlative to basic human rights. As such, the international community, and more specifically the individual states of which it is comprised, had no moral discretion to do otherwise. As a consequence, the excuses offered for their choices not to intervene failed to mitigate their respective moral failures.

The moral obligation to intervene in Rwanda was not merely a prima facie moral reason for action. Rather, it was an all-things-considered conclusive moral reason for action. [4] The grounding for the obligation is based in the basic human right to physical security. SALEWAAlp Trainer Mid GTX q9ab2Hoy
As Shue has noted, a right implies a tripartite set of correlative duties. First, there is the duty we each bear to refrain from violating the right. Second, there is a duty that we collectively bear to protect the right from violation. Third, and finally, we bear a duty to ensure that the right holder can enjoy the substance of the right. In the end, Shue captures this in his assertion that a basic right implies a duty to provide “social guarantees against standard threats.” LowaZephyr Desert Mid TF 1MYQoU

Despite the fact that basic rights imply universal duties borne by all, functionally, it would be unreasonable to expect individual duty-bearers to fulfill the demands implied by the massive violation of basic human rights as occurred in Rwanda. In addition, such uncoordinated voluntary action, even if well intentioned, would likely prove ineffective. States mediate our interactions in the international arena and are uniquely well-positioned, both morally and practically, to effectively and efficiently fulfill the moral demands implied by the violation of basic human rights that occurred during the Rwandan genocide. As such, states are the derivative bearers of our duties to provide the necessary social guarantees against standard threats to the basic right to physical security.

This grounding is, however, insufficient to establish an all-things-considered conclusive moral reason for action. For example, there may be competing moral considerations that outweigh the moral duties implied by the violation of basic rights. In Rwanda, there were none of these potential obligation-defeating reasons. As to the general consequentialist concern that the intervention would likely do more harm than good, there was little factual basis in support of this proposition at the time, and with the benefit of hindsight we are now able to state with certainty the weakness of that concern. With little effort, largely limited to supplying Ugandan peacekeepers with logistical support and a clear mandate, timely intervention would likely have resulted in saving hundreds of thousands of civilian lives. It is unclear what harm was avoided by the choice not to intervene.

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adicional (lang: sp)
Nosotros se lo cambiaremos sin costo adicional.
We will replace it free of charge.
No hay cargo adicional.
There is no extra charge.
Veo un problema adicional.
I see a further problem.
He solicitado información adicional.
I have asked for further information.
Necesitamos financiación adicional.
We need to have extra finance.
Es una cuestión adicional.
That is an additional question.
Quiero señalar un problema adicional.
I should like to point out a further problem.
Le doy un dato adicional.
I will give you an additional piece of information.
- Gracias por esta atención adicional.
Thank you for this additional response.
Permítanme una breve frase adicional.
Allow me a brief remark in parenthesis.
No añade ninguna capacidad militar adicional.
It adds no additional military capabilities.
Se necesita un estímulo adicional.
An additional stimulus is needed.
Solamente tengo una pregunta adicional.
I have just one other query.
Me permito formular una pregunta adicional.
But I would still like to ask another related question.
Esta sería mi pregunta adicional.
That is my supplementary question.
Esta es mi primera pregunta adicional.
This is my first additional question.
Somos cuidadosos para evitar este problema adicional.
We are careful to avoid this further problem.
¿No necesitamos una reflexión adicional a ese respecto?
Do we not need further deliberation on the subject?
Quisiera ofrecer al respecto alguna información adicional.
I want to give some additional information here.
No es necesario celebrar ninguna votación adicional.
No further votes are required.
Gracias, Comisaria, por su intervención adicional.
Thank you, Commissioner, for your additional intervention.
Sólo quisiera hacer un comentario adicional.
I have just one supplementary remark.
No hay mucho dinero adicional que repartir.
There is not a lot of extra money to give away.
¿O va a representar un gasto adicional?
Or will that be an additional expenditure?
Ninguna razón objetiva justifica un plazo adicional.
There is no cogent reason for any additional delay.
No obstante, quiero añadir esta observación adicional.
I would, however, add this additional remark.
Por esto no vamos a apoyar dicha enmienda adicional.
It is for that reason that we shall not be supporting that additional amendment.
Quisiera plantear la siguiente pregunta adicional.
I should like to put the following supplementary question.
Sin duda, este tiempo adicional era necesario.
This extra time has certainly been necessary.
Muchas gracias por la pregunta adicional.
Thank you very much for the additional question.
Dicha formulación adicional es la siguiente:
This additional formulation is worded:
El 2 % adicional representará una cantidad importante.
The extra 2% will produce a substantial amount.
Confío en que recibiremos información adicional.
I trust additional information will be forthcoming.
Por eso debe aprobarse este párrafo adicional.
That is why this additional paragraph has to be adopted.
No obstante, me gustaría hacer un comentario adicional.
However, I would like to make a further comment.
Con todo, me gustaría formular una pregunta adicional.
However, I would like to pose an additional question.
Un instrumento adicional generaría una confusión innecesaria.
An additional instrument would introduce unnecessary confusion.
Estoy pidiendo más información adicional a la Comisión.
I am calling for more information than the Commission has given us.
Pedimos una corrección financiera adicional del 25 %.
We want an extra financial correction of 25 %.
Señor Presidente, una breve aclaración adicional.
Mr President, another quick point of clarification.
Mi pregunta adicional trata también sobre Birmania.
My additional question is also about Burma.
Solicitamos a la Comisión información adicional por escrito.
We asked for further information in writing from the Commission.
Es necesario introducir esta consideración adicional.
That needs to be added.
Además, un programa adicional de este tipo sólo acarrea burocracia adicional.
A supplementary programme of this sort will, moreover, bring only additional bureaucracy in its train.
Se produce una repercusión adicional sobre el entorno y una presión adicional sobre los ciudadanos.
There is an additional impact on our environment and there is an additional stress on our citizens.
Una carta adicional, aunque sea europea, no puede aportar respuestas definitivas.
An additional charter, European or not, will certainly not provide them.
Esta medida no eliminaría ningún caso sospechoso adicional de EEB.
It would not remove a single additional suspect case of BSE.
Tengo una pequeña petición adicional a la Sra. Comisaria.
I have one small, further request to the Commissioner.
Querría hacer algún comentario adicional sobre dos puntos.
I would like to make an additional comment on two points.
Y, naturalmente, ¿se producirá una apertura adicional del mercado?
And, of course, will there also be a further opening of the market?
Sin embargo, hay algunos puntos que merecerían algún comentario adicional.
Nevertheless, there are certain points which deserve additional comment.
No veo porqué debe ser necesaria aquí una ayuda adicional.
I fail to see why any additional aid should be needed.

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The failure of these proposals after only minor debate reflected the feeling that the compromise had been "hard-won." [71] Reopening the "awkward," [72] "strange," [73] and even "mysterious" [74] solution to the rift M Missoni Lurex Spacedye Wedge Q8mH7e
between common and civil law lawyers in the shape of Article 7(1) could potentially unravel the nascent CISG. It was better to keep such mischief shut tight within the Pandora's box that was Article 7(1).

Arguably, the compromise sought to contain the impact of good faith. Had either the third paragraph of the eighth session's original proposal or the final East German proposal succeeded, then the CISG would have contained express provisions imposing a substantive precontractual good faith obligation, including a duty to negotiate in good faith. Like Articles 1-6, [76] however, a potentially larger scope for good faith was abandoned to ensure more widespread acceptability among participants. The end result is an apparent trade-off: a reduced area of formal uniformity for the sake of the ultimate success of the entire project. Arguably, a narrow scope for good faith is simply part of the historical bargain struck by Contracting States.

How has this shaky compromise fared since the deal was done? Far from being dead, most authors favor an "expansive role for good faith." [77] Interestingly, when the good faith compromise in Article 7(1) was struck, a gap-filling provision had not yet been envisaged. [78] Article 7(2) was only inserted during the latest stage of drafting. [79] Perhaps this temporal mismatch has contributed to good faith's phoenix-like quality.

The revival, however, can largely be attributed to a phenomenon observed by Professor Eörsi -- that the hard-won compromise on good faith has always masked continuing disagreement amongst drafters. Vince Camuto Maltida oaBQm2ty
With vague wording capable of [page 273] multiple meanings, [81] Article 7(1) was an attempt to please everyone with the result that this Pandora's box gave the mere illusion of compromise. The nature of good faith in the CISG and the extent of its precontractual application therefore remained debatable.


A range of arguments claim that good faith in the CISG is:

Of course, it should be noted that most of these arguments are not mutually exclusive, and supporters of one view will often support one or two of the others.

The first view is unanimously supported. Some writers, however, go further. Garnering support from the legislative history and a literal stance on the wording of Article 7(1), they confine good faith to this role alone, restricting it to an interpretive tool to be used only in cases of textual ambiguity. Ironically, this interpretation restricts a provision said to promote flexibility. Only a minority of commentators and cases support this restrictive take on the first view. [82]

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